The Development of a Service-Learning Outcomes Measurement Scale (S-LOMS)


  • Robin Stanley SNELL Department of Management, Lingnan University
  • Ka Hing Lau Office of Service-Learning, Lingnan University



Hong Kong, validation, scale development, exploratory factor analysis


Service-learning as a transformative pedagogy has been adopted within Hong Kong’s tertiary education sector for over a decade; however, the lack of a standardized and validated measurement instrument to assess its student learning outcomes has been an obstacle to its further development. The current research study, collaboratively conducted by Lingnan University, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Baptist University, and The Education University of Hong Kong, therefore aims to develop such a measurement instrument named the “Service-Learning Outcomes Measurement Scale (S-LOMS),” taking consideration of the unique features of service-learning in Hong Kong. The scale development and validation work, with exploratory factor analysis and reliability test, has thus far demonstrated that the student-perceived learning outcomes after service-learning can be measured and assessed through 56 items. These items cover 11 domains under four major categories, namely: a) knowledge application; b) personal and professional skills, including relationship and team skills, creative problem solving skills, self-reflection skills, and critical thinking skills, c) civic orientation and engagement, including sense of social responsibility, community commitment and understanding, and caring and respect, and d) self-awareness, including self-efficacy, self-understanding, and commitment to self-improvement. Several additional insights arising from the validation results are discussed.

Author Biographies

Robin Stanley SNELL, Department of Management, Lingnan University

Robin Stanley SNELL is a professor in the department of Management of Lingnan University in Hong Kong. His research interests include service-learning, service leadership education and practice, qualitative approaches to organizational behaviour research, organizational learning, business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and creating shared value. He has completed several competitively-funded research projects. Prof. SNELL has also conducted consultancy projects in public sector organizations, and he has run workshops on business ethics for senior managers in the private sector.

Ka Hing Lau, Office of Service-Learning, Lingnan University

Ka Hing LAU majored in M. Phil psychology and is working for Office of Service-Learning of Lingnan University. He has years of experience conducting both academic and business research, on various topics including social psychology, human capital, market research, scale development, public opinion polls, and service-learning. His current projects include establishing service-learning impact measurement instruments, promoting STEM education in service-learning, and facilitating innovation and entrepreneurship in liberal arts education.


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