Socio-Demographic and Behavioral Predictors of Admission for Kidney Disease in an Urban Hospital in Northwest Indiana


  • Kelly DeMichael Indiana University School of Medicine-Gary
  • Baraka Muvuka Indiana University School of Medicine-Gary
  • Jonathan Guerrero Indiana University School of Medicine-Gary
  • Kyle Gosporadek, MD Indiana University School of Medicine-Gary



Background: The CDC estimates more than 1 in 7 American adults have Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and nearly 800,000 live with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD); the majority of whom require dialysis. Current literature demands further exploration on how social determinants of health (SDOH) influence inpatient and emergency services utilization for CKD/ESRD-related exacerbations. This study examined socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with hospital admission for CKD/ESRD. It is part of a three-phased Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnership between IUSM-NW and St. Mary Medical Center (SMMC) to examine and address relationships between SDOH, patient demographics, health behaviors, and health outcomes from January 2022-January 2025.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed a limited dataset generated by SMMC from EPIC™ with SDOH, demographic, health behavior, and health outcomes data obtained from adult inpatients between January 2021 and March 2023. CKD/ESRD was determined by admission diagnosis ICD-10 Code N18. Data analysis utilized SPSS 29.0 to produce frequencies, Chi-Square tests (p<0.05), and a binary logistic regression (p<0.05). This study was exempted by Indiana University Human Research Protection Program (IRB # 14040).

Results: This study included 10,953 inpatient admissions involving predominantly white (78.4%) and older adult (68 ± 21) patients. CKD/ESRD represented 96 admissions. The bivariate analysis found a significant association between CKD/ESRD admissions and age (p<0.001), race (p<0.001), sex (p=0.008), insurance type (p=0.030), and smoking tobacco use (p=0.004). After adjusting for all factors, being Asian (OR=12.172, p<0.001), Black (OR=3.702; p<0.001), female (OR=0.518; p=0.003), publicly insured (OR=2.76; p=0.014), and former smoking (OR=1.606; p=0.045) were significantly associated with CKD/ESRD admission.

Conclusions: This study revealed several demographics, SDOH, and health behaviors associated with CKD/ESRD admission in an urban hospital. Uncovering predictors of CKD/ESRD admission enables focused interventions to decrease admissions. The next CBPR phases will apply advanced statistical analyses to further explore these relationships and codevelop interventions.