Rates and Risk-Factors of Post Implantation Infection in Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices


  • David Karnani Indiana University School of Medicine
  • Eric White Parkview Health





Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) include permanent pacemakers (PPM), implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Both ICDs and dual chamber PPMs are two-lead systems; whereas, CRT is a three-lead system. Indications for CIEDs include arrythmia, risk of sudden cardiac death and AV block. From 1993 to 2003, over 4 million CIEDs were implanted. With the upward trend in the rate of CIED implantations, the post-operative infection burden has increased concurrently. Device related infections are a serious complication of CIED implants. They are associated with a significant increase in the rate of mortality as well as a significant increase in financial burden. We hypothesize two-lead systems will have significantly lower rate of infection than three-lead devices 


This study will be a retrospective review of patient charts who are hospitalized in the Parkview Health medical system in Fort Wayne, Indiana over a three-year period. All patients who have received a CIED during that time frame will be included in the study. Patients will be categorized by specific implant type and recorded as developing post-operation infection or not. Demographic and health status data will also be collected and analyzed for correlation with the development of device related infection. 


Our results will compare the device related infection rate for two-lead versus three lead systems, as well as the infection rate for each type of CIED. We also expect to find results which support a correlation between specific patient demographics and patient health factors. 


Conclusion and Impact: 

The results of this study will serve as a guide for identifying high risk procedures and patients. The objective is to provide providers with guidelines for the use of post-operative prophylaxis in order to reduce the incidence of CIED-related infection.

Author Biography

Eric White, Parkview Health

Department of Cardiology